“These PDF documents are updates to those in the 1999 publication “A Guide to Educational Systems Around the World” (which was an update to “The Handbook on the Placement of Foreign Graduate Students,” published in 1990 and colloquially known as the “Graduate Handbook”). The guide is broken down into a PDF for each country that provides lists of credentials and other data that can be used both for undergraduate and graduate admissions. It is important to note that these documents do not replace either of those earlier publications, which should be used for credentials issued prior to 1999, the period those publications cover.” -Description from source