Working with Unaccompanied Minors from Central America

As the humanitarian crisis along the U.S. and Mexico border persists, USCCB/MRS has assisted with Providing Safe Passage to Unaccompanied Children from Central America by promoting permanency through family reunification and foster care through the underpinnings of Catholic Teaching in their work. 

As advocates continue to share information, create new resources, litigate, offer trainings, and more to help unaccompanied children, the following resources are meant to aid service providers and advocates in their work with unaccompanied children and their families.

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VIDEO: Resettling Unaccompanied Children

USCCB/MRS is one of two agencies authorized by the Department of State to help children who enter the U.S. without a legal guardian.

Highlighted Resources: Working with Unaccompanied Minors from Central America

The resources on the following Highlighted Resource List have been hand chosen by BRYCS staff to assist service providers in working with unaccompanied minors from Central America. It includes the following topical areas:


General Information (Back to Top)

  1. Broken Dreams: Central American Children's Dangerous Journey to the United States. UNICEF 12 page s . August 23, 2016. English . http://reliefweb.int/report/honduras/broken-dreams-central-american-children-s-dangerous-journey-united-states

    This report from UNICEF focuses on refugee and migrant children from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. The issue brief looks at the reasons they leave home, the dangers they encounter along the journey, and the challenges they face in seeking refuge in the United States.

  2. Central America: Information on Migration of Unaccompanied Children from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. U.S. Government Accountability Office (GOA) 25 page s . February 2015. English . http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-362

    This report identifies U.S. mission-level efforts to (1) identify causes of the rapid increase in migration of unaccompanied children and (2) address the causes identified. GAO developed a set of questions to obtain written responses from State, USAID, and DHS officials responsible for programs in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras and then reviewed, analyzed, and tabulated these agency officials' responses.

  3. Childhood and Migration in Central and North America: Causes, Policies, Practices and Challenges. Center for Gender & Refugee Studies 390 page s . February 2015. English . http://www.refworld.org/docid/54e5c3574.html

    This resource from The Center for Gender & Refugee Studies analyzes the conditions for children and adolescents in Central and North America who are affected by migration throughout every stage of the process, including in their countries of origin, during transit, in destination countries, and following repatriation. It concludes by proposing short-, medium-, and long-term regional, bilateral, national, and local solutions grounded in human rights.

  4. Children Don't Travel Thousands of Miles on a Whim. U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI) page s . English . http://refugees.org/explore-the-issues/unaccompanied-migrating-children-facts/

    This webpage shows the perilous journey Central American children take to get to America and explains why so many put their lives at risk to get here.

  5. Children in Danger: A Guide to the Humanitarian Challenge at the Border. American Immigration Council 20 page s . July 2014. English . http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/special-reports/children-danger-guide-humanitarian-challenge-border

    This guide was prepared to provide policymakers, the media, and the public with basic information surrounding the current humanitarian challenge the U.S. is facing as thousands of young migrants show up at our southern border. This guide seeks to explain the basics. Who are the unaccompanied children and why are they coming? What basic protections are they entitled to by law? What happens to unaccompanied children once they are in U.S. custody? What has the government done so far? What additional responses have been proposed to address this issue? The children's reasons for coming to the United States, their care, our obligations to them as a nation, and the implications for foreign and domestic policies are critical pieces we must understand as we move toward solutions. (Description from source)

  6. Children on the Run: Unaccompanied Children Leaving Central America and Mexico and the Need for International Protection. UNHCR 120 page s . 2014. English . http://www.unhcrwashington.org/children

    This report unveils the humanitarian impact insecurity has had on over 400 unaccompanied children from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico held in U.S. federal custody. The agency calls on Governments to take action to keep children safe from human rights abuses, violence and crime, and to ensure their access to asylum and other forms of international protection. A supplemental video analyzing first-hand accounts is also available.   

  7. Children Traveling Alone: The Catholic Church’s Response. Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc. (CLINIC) page s . June 2014. English . https://cliniclegal.org/resources/webinars/children-traveling-alone-catholic-churchs-response

    This Webinar featuring experts on the root causes of migration from Central America and the emergency, social, and legal services available to minor children.

  8. Dramatic Surge in the Arrival of Unaccompanied Children Has Deep Roots and No Simple Solutions. Chishti, Muzaffar , Hipsman, Faye page s . June 2014. English . http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/dramatic-surge-arrival-unaccompanied-children-has-deep-roots-and-no-simple-solutions

    This resource discusses the 90 percent spike in arrivals from last year and predictions of future increases ahead. 

  9. FAQ: Unaccompanied Immigrant Children on the Southern U.S. Border. National Immigrant Justice Center 3 page s . July 2014. English . http://www.immigrantjustice.org/sites/immigrantjustice.org/files/FAQ%20UICs%202014_07_11.pdf

    This FAQ includes information on the children who compromise the current influx of children coming to the U.S., why they are coming, if they are considered refugees, why they are coming now, what types of harm are they fleeing, how do they get here, what legal processes do they go through upon arrival at the U.S. border, what the Trafficking Victims Protection and Reauthorization Act of 2008 (TVPRA) is and how it impacts these children, if any of the children qualify for legal status and, if so, how long does that process take, how many children are allowed to stay in the U.S., and finally how should the U.S. respond to this challenge.

  10. No Childhood Here: Why Central American Children are Fleeing Their Homes. Kennedy, Elizabeth 12 page s . July 2014. English . http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/sites/default/files/docs/no_childhood_here_why_central_american_children_are_fleeing_their_homes_final.pdf

    Though many children are leaving their country as a last resort, this report cites some of the push factors that lead children and youth to leave their homes including organized crime, gangs, violence, and in rural areas, extreme poverty. This is compounded both children and their families not trusting their governments to help them.  Furthermore, studies are showing that only 1 in 3 children cite family reunification as a primary reason for leaving home.

  11. Trends in Unaccompanied Child and Family Migration from Central America. Rosenblum, Marc R. , Ball, Isabel 11 page s . January 2016. English . http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/trends-unaccompanied-child-and-family-migration-central-america

    This fact sheet traces the evolving trends in child and family migration, using the most recent apprehensions data from the United States and Mexico. It also examines the factors that contributed to the downturn in migration and sketches the push and pull factors that continue to drive this migration.

  12. Unaccompanied Child Migration to the United States: The Tension between Protection and Prevention. Rosenblum, Marc R. 38 page s . April 2015. English . http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/unaccompanied-child-migration-united-states-tension-between-protection-and-prevention

    This report explains the shifting patterns of Central American migration between 2011 and 2014, analyzes the root of the policy challenges posed by these flows, and outlines U.S. and regional policy responses to address the crisis. It also makes recommendations on policies that advance both critical protection and enforcement goals in situations of complex, mixed flows, and provides additional policies that the United States, Mexico, and the Northern Triangle countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras might adopt to better manage child and family migration pressures today and in the future. A supplemental webinar, “Child and Family Migration to the United States: Continuing Flows and Evolving Responses”, is also available (Description from source). 
     

  13. Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America: Context, Causes, and Responses. Stinchcomb, Dennis , Hershberg, Eric 44 page s . November 2014. English . https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2524001

    This paper offers a comprehensive orientation to the recent surge in migration to the United States by unaccompanied children and families from the Northern Triangle countries of Central America: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. To inform advocates and others working on behalf of these new arrivals, this report seeks to: 1) Set the unprecedented expansion in the number of youth and family border crossings in the context of long-term migration trends from the region; 2) Present a detailed account of the country conditions (“push factors”) driving the exodus of Central American minors and families; and 3) Consider new arrivals’ prospects for remaining in the U.S. in light of available forms of deportation relief as well as current policy and advocacy responses. (Description from source)

     

  14. Whose Child Am I? Unaccompanied, Undocumented Children in U.S. Immigration Custody. Terrio, Susan J. 261 page s . 2015. English . http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520281493

    This book tells the story of six Central American and Mexican children as they try to navigate the American federal detention system. The story follows the children from their arrest by immigration officials to their deportation proceedings, and from their release from detention to their struggle to build a new life in the United States. This book examines how the U.S. started detaining immigrant children and what can be learned moving forward. 
     

Advocacy & Policy (Back to Top)

  1. A Guide to Children Arriving at the Border: Laws, Policies, and Responses. American Immigration Council 24 page s . June 2015. English . http://immigrationpolicy.org/special-reports/guide-children-arriving-border-laws-policies-and-responses

    This guide provides information about the tens of thousands of children who have fled their homes in Central America and arrived at our southern border. This Guide seeks to explain the basics. Who are these children and why are they coming? What basic protections does the law afford them? What happens to the children once they are in U.S. custody? What have the U.S. and other governments done in response? What additional responses have advocates and legislators proposed?

  2. Child Migration: The Detention and Repatriation of Unaccompanied Central American Children from Mexico. 84 page s . January 2010. English . http://www.crsprogramquality.org/storage/pubs/peacebuilding/LACRO%20Migration-final.pdf

    This study documents the conditions under which unaccompanied child migrants from Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala are detained and repatriated from Mexico to their countries of origin. The study’s target population consisted of children 12-17 years of age, most of whom were attempting to reach the U.S., traveling as undocumented migrants and either alone or with non-guardian family members, friends or strangers. The study details the abuses experienced by child migrants on their journey and during the four stages of apprehension, detention, deportation, and reception. It also examines aspects of the detention and deportation process which may place unaccompanied child migrants at greater risk of abuse and exploitation. (Description taken from source)

  3. Children at the Border: The Screening, Protection and Repatriation of Unaccompanied Mexican Minors. Cavendish, Betsy , Cortazar, Maru 132 page s . 2011. English . http://appleseednetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Children-At-The-Border1.pdf

    This report recommends a number of concrete steps the United States should take to improve how it treats unaccompanied Mexican minors at the border, and to come into compliance with the letter and spirit of the TVPRA. It also offers recommendations to the Mexican government designed to enhance its ability to deal with the root causes of underage migration, and to both governments to improve the repatriation process along their lengthy shared border. (Description from source).

  4. Findings and Recommendations Relating to the 2012-2013 Missions to Monitor the Protection Screening of Mexican Unaccompanied Children Along the U.S.-Mexico Border. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Regional Office for the United States and the Caribbean in Washington, DC (ROW) 47 page s . June 2014. English . http://americanimmigrationcouncil.org/sites/default/files/UNHCR_UAC_Monitoring_Report_Final_June_2014.pdf

    This report is based on the monitoring of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) operations in the Laredo, San Diego, Rio Grande Valley and Tucson Sectors at the request of CBP regarding the protection screening of unaccompanied children (UAC) from Mexico. The goal of these trips was to review and observe CBP's methods for implementing the screening requirements of TVPRA 2008 and U.S. obligations of non-rejection or return of persons, including current screening practices, operational challenges faced by CBP in implementing the screening provisions, the tools and training available.

  5. Options for Managing the Flow of Children: A Protection Sensitive Approach. U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI) 15 page s . July 2014. English . http://www.refugees.org/assets/images/our-work/uscri-full-uac-solutions.pdf

    This report includes a variety of recommendations to help protect against the dangers faced by children including: prohibition of "refoulment" (directly or indirectly), legal options for the US (DHS) to manage the flow abroad using current tools that avoid refoulment and help with orderly flows (capacity building of asylum system in neighboring countries, humanitarian evacuation to a safe country, parole as refugees, in country processing, regular resettlement, Lautenberg/Specter Amendment Processing, Children's Corps, U.S, Government Lottery System, Derivative Temporary Protected Status (TPS), Designation of Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala for TPS for individuals under 18.)

  6. The Flow of Unaccompanied Children Through the Immigration System: A Resource for Practitioners, Policy Makers, and Researchers. Byrne, Olga , Miller, Elise 38 page s . March 2012. English . http://www.vera.org/pubs/flow-unaccompanied-children-through-immigration-system-resource-practitioners-policy-makers-and

    This publication draws on knowledge gained through administering this program, as well as data from the Office of Refugee Resettlement, to document the path unaccompanied children follow through this system. In describing current policy and practice, it serves as a tool for practitioners, policy makers, and researchers working on issues affecting unaccompanied children nationwide.

  7. Unaccompanied Alien Children U.S. Law & Policy Backgrounder: Protecting The Best Interests Of All Children. Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service (LIRS) 2 page s . June 2014. English Indonesian . http://lirs.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/UAC-Law-and-Policy-FINAL.pdf

    This backgrounder provides information on who are unaccompanied children (UACs), why the sudden increase in children from El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala, a look at the United States legacy in protecting vulnerable children, and UAC data and care and custody information.

  8. Unaccompanied Immigrant Children: Vulnerable Children Face Insurmountable Obstacles. National Immigrant Justice Center 4 page s . January 2014. English . https://immigrantjustice.org/sites/immigrantjustice.org/files/NIJC%20Policy%20Brief%20-%20Unaccompanied%20Immigrant%20Children%20FINAL%20Winter%202014.pdf

    This resource analyzed the driving forces behind the children's migration, the treatment the children received upon arrival, and the challenges they encountered in the U.S. immigration system. This policy brief calls on the U.S. government to act to ensure that the immigration system protects children's due process and human rights. (Description from source)

Legal Resources (Back to Top)

  1. Central American Minors (CAM) Program Backgrounder. Cultural Orientation Resource Exchange (CORE) 16 page s . October 2015. English . http://coresourceexchange.org/portfolio-items/central-american-minors/?portfolioID=12310

    This backgrounder aims to support Resettlement Agency staff who receive and welcome these children, and to aid others in host communities—educators, health professionals, social workers, government officials, and members of the general public—who may be engaged to help Central American Minor refugees adjust to life in the United States.

  2. Division of Unaccompanied Children’s Services (DUCS) Legal Access Project: Pro Bono Referral Resource Guide. Center on Immigration and Justice 42 page s . December 2011. English . http://www.vera.org/files/ducs-legal-access-project-pro-bono-referral-resource-guide_0.pdf

    This resource contains a list of legal service organizers that provide free or low-cost immigration legal assistance and representation for non-detained children in immigration proceedings.

  3. No Small Matter: Ensuring Protection and Durable Solutions for Unaccompanied and Separated Refugee Children. Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service (LIRS) 84 page s . May 2007. English . http://lirs.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/RPTNOSMALLMATTER.pdf

    This report lays out six main findings that emerged from mappings and expert interviews, discusses their potential implications for the implementation of the guidelines, and concludes with some suggestions aimed at strengthening unaccompanied and separated child systems, ensuring BID preconditions are in place and supporting implementation of the guidelines.

  4. Rules, Laws and Remedies for Unaccompanied Immigrant Children. Smith, Debbie page s . 2016. English . https://cliniclegal.org/resources/protecting-vulnerable-unaccompanied-immigrant-children

     This article from the Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc., provides an overview of child migration from Central America and focus on the children's legal rights.

  5. SIJS Caseworker's Toolkit for Children in Federal Custody. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops/Migration and Refugee Services (USCCB/MRS) . 2008. English . http://www.brycs.org/sijs-toolkit/

    This toolkit was primarily developed for foster care caseworkers assisting children in the federal custody of the Office of Refugee Resettlement's Division of Children's Services (ORR/DCS), to ensure that SIJS-eligible children receive the assistance and case monitoring they need during the SIJS application process. In addition, this toolkit may also help social service and legal practitioners working with other children who may be eligible for SIJS. This toolkit consists of nine products, which include flow charts, Q & As, and lists of resources.  It was updated in 2012.

  6. Step-by-Step Guide on Apprehension and Detention of Juveniles in the United States. Women's Refugee Commission 4 page s . June 2014. English . http://womensrefugeecommission.org/resources/document/1035-step-by-step-guide-on-apprehension-and-detention-of-juveniles-in-the-united-states

    This guide covers the U.S. government's immigration enforcement framework, how migrant children arrive at the U.S. Southern border seeking entry, the process when an unaccompanied child is apprehended trying to enter the U.S. without permission, the detention conditions of immigrant children in the U.S., release from detention, and the Unaccompanied Refugee Minor Program.

  7. The Rights of Children in the Immigration Process. ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project 9 page s . July 2014. English . https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/assets/aclu_irp_legal_backgrounder_on_children_july_2014_final.pdf

    This memorandum summarizes three critical categories of legal protections that must be provided to immigrant children, whether they are traveling alone or accompanied by a parent or guardian, who are apprehended by the government and placed in immigration detention: (1) access to relief in full and fair immigration proceedings; (2) detention in the least restrictive and most humane settings possible; and (3) legal representation in their immigration proceedings. This memorandum also sets forth prescriptions for how the federal government must treat children in the immigration process in order to comply with the law. (Description from source)

  8. The U.S. Government’s Response to the Current Influx of Unaccompanied Children at the Border and Its Obligations Under Existing Court Orders. National Immigration Law Center 2 page s . June 2014. English . https://www.nilc.org/issues/immigration-enforcement/fedsresponsekids/

    Provides and overview of the current influx of unaccompanied children into the United States, the Perez-Funez injunction, the Orantes nationwide injunction, and how to report any violations of these requirements.

Schools (Back to Top)

  1. Educational Resources for New Arrivals and DACA Students. U.S. Department of Education page s . 2014. English . http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/focus/immigration-resources.html

    The U.S. Department of Education's page dedicated to providing information and resources for students who are newly arrived in the United States or who have received, or are planning to request, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)!  

  2. Guidance for School Districts to Ensure Equal Access for All Children to Public Schools, Regardless of Immigration Status. U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division , U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, Office of the General Counsel page s . May 2014. English Spanish . http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/secretary-duncan-and-attorney-general-holder-issue-guidance-school-districts-ens

    Secretary Arne Duncan and Attorney General Eric Holder announced updated guidance to assist public elementary and secondary schools to ensure enrollment processes are consistent with the law and fulfill their obligation to provide all children—no matter their background—equal access to an education. An official letter, and FAQ for states, schools districts, and parents, and a fact sheet on the rights of all children to enroll in school is included.

  3. Immigration and Schools: Supporting Success for Undocumented and Unaccompanied Homeless Youth. National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth 16 page s . November 2010. English . http://www.naehcy.org/dl/immig.pdf

    This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some of the factors that cause youth to experience homelessness without a parent or guardian and the circumstances that result in immigrant youth being in the United States without their parents or guardians, the brief shares information about the federal laws that provide the means for youth to attend school and address their immigration status. (Description from source)

  4. Promoting a Culture of Welcome for Refugees in Schools: Approaches & Opportunities. Downs-Karkos, Susan , Bebic, Sanja , Herman, Shirin page s . 2014. English . http://welcomingrefugees.org/promoting-culture-welcome-refugees-schools-approaches-and-opportunities-webinar-0

    This archived Webinar identifies key ingredients of a welcoming school and shares promising examples from the field.    

  5. Supporting and Educating Traumatized Students: A Guide for School-Based Professionals. Rossen, Eric , Hull, Robert 336 page s . October, 2012. English . http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Psychology/Clinical/?view=usa&ci=9780199766529#Description

    This material provides practical, effective, and implementable strategies and resources for adapting and differentiating instruction, modifying the classroom and school environments, and building competency for students affected by trauma. Chapters offer techniques and strategies designed for all types of educational environments and in the context of multiple potential sources of trauma. Chapter 4, "Immigrant Students," written by BRYCS staff and colleagues, focuses on supporting resilience in children, and includes a list of practical on-line resources.

  6. The Impact of Mental and Physical Wellness on School Success of Diverse Learners. Acosta Price, Olga , Doran, Patricia , Straker, Howard 37 page s . 2011. English . http://www.healthinschools.org/~/media/Presentations/2011%20Presenations/Mental%20Physical%20Health%20CEC%202011_final%20CONVERTED.ashx

    This session addresses the impact of mental and physical wellness on academic success, particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional students. The panel provides multiple perspectives on cultural, legal, and socioeconomic factors impacting mental and physical wellness, and makes recommendations for a school-wide collaborative approach to support diverse learners. 

Health/Mental Health (Back to Top)

  1. Assessing, Developing, and Maintaining Quality School Mental Health Services for Immigrant and Refugee Students. Acosta Price, Olga , Huffman-Gottschling, Kristen 33 page s . 2011. English . http://www.healthinschools.org/~/media/Presentations/2011%20Presenations/NASBHC%202011_final%20CONVERTED.ashx

    Developments in quality improvement activities have advanced our understanding of successful school mental health programs and services. In this session, presenters discuss traditional strategies used to ensure high quality school-based services, offer caution about using these strategies when implementing mental health services for members of immigrant and refugee communities, and share the organizational factors shown to promote culturally responsive and effective care among new Americans.  

  2. Immigrant and Refugee Mental Health: Best Practices in Meeting the Needs of Immigrants and Refugees. Thao, Mao 4 page s . February 2009. English . http://www.wilder.org/Wilder-Research/Publications/Studies/Forms/Study/docsethomepage.aspx?ID=413&FolderCTID=0x0120D52000F239CA0ED16F9A49B139AA1402664580003333A21DCC750948AD7DA120396FC83C&List=5ffe87fb-8c61-4035-86cc-db1b1907fa0a&RootFolder=%2FWilder-Rese

    This resource looks at stigma and language in regards to barriers and service gaps, cultural conceptions of health and mental health, and effective therapy/service models.

  3. Mental Health Issues in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors. Huemer, Julia , Karnik, Niranjan S. , Voelkl-Kernsock, Sabine 10 page s . April 2009. English . http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2682790

    This study evaluated Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in the United States.  After assessing medical records of URMs from 1998 to 2008, the study found that these children have higher levels of PTSD than non-refugee youth and accompanied refugee minors.  The article calls for further study on long-term outcomes, stress management, and the creation of standardized, culturally-sensitive measures for a diverse refugee population of unaccompanied children suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.  

  4. Mental Health Services for Immigrant and Refugee Students: Innovations and Cultural Adaptations. Behrens, Donna , Acosta Price, Olga 51 page s . 2011. English . http://www.healthinschools.org/~/media/Presentations/2011%20Presenations/MASBHC_May19__Presentation%20CONVERTED.ashx

    This presentation covers the challenges of providing mental health services in schools to immigrant and refugee students as well as suggestions for cultural adaptations that ensure interventions provided in schools are culturally reflective and responsive. Additional resources are also given. The Role of School Health Based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded demonstration project, Caring Across Communities, this presentation covers the challenges of providing mental health services in schools to immigrant and refugee students as well as suggestions for cultural adaptations that ensure interventions provided in schools are culturally reflective and responsive.  

  5. Trauma Informed Care for Children Exposed to Violence: Tips for Agencies Working with Immigrant Families. Safe Start Center 5 page s . 2011. English . https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/defendingchildhood/legacy/2011/09/19/tips-immigrant-families.pdf

    This resource includes tips for working with young children, elementary-aged children, and teenagers.   

  6. Treating Traumatized Immigrant and Refugee Youth. Ellis, B. Heidi , Cohen, Judith . December 2009. English . http://www.healthinschools.org/en/Immigrant-and-Refugee-Children/Tools-and-Documents.aspx

    This archived webinar demonstrates how identifying and treating trauma-related mental health symptoms and promoting healthy coping is crucial to helping new American youth survive and thrive in their new home, schools, and communities. Participants will be able to describe common components of evidence-based treatments for traumatized immigrant and refugee children and youth. The webinar is available in both audio and visual forms.

Anti-Trafficking (Back to Top)

  1. Closing the Gaps: The Need to Improve Identification and Services to Child Victims of Trafficking. Godziak, Elzbieta , MacDonnell, Margaret 171-184 page s . 2007. English . http://issuu.com/georgetownsfs/docs/gozdziak-closing-the-gaps

    This paper uses a case study approach to examine the inadequacies and service gaps in the system established in the United States to care for child victims of trafficking. The case study is discussed within a broader context of the evolution of the system of care available to child victims of trafficking, including the transfer of care of undocumented children in federal custody from the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to the Office of Refugee Resettlement. (Description from source)

  2. Fact Sheet: Child Victims of Human Trafficking. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families (ACF) 2 page s . 2009. English . http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-child-victims-of-human-trafficking

    This fact sheet discusses what the human trafficking of children looks like in the United States, the definition of human trafficking under U.S. federal law, how to report human trafficking, how to obtain assistance for a foreign child victim, who provides care for unaccompanied or separated children victims, and finally, what assistance is available for child victims.

  3. Fact Sheet: Labor Trafficking. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) 2 page s . 2008. Chinese English Polish Russian Spanish . http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-labor-trafficking-english

    This fact sheet defines labor trafficking, examines the different forms of labor trafficking, how to identify victims, the health impacts, and the types of assistance available to victims. 

  4. Fact Sheet: Victims Assistance. Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 2 page s . Chinese English Polish Russian Spanish . http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-victim-assistance-english

    This fact sheet discusses benefits and services available to victims of human trafficking, temporary immigration status and relief,  and lists additional resources for services.

  5. Human Trafficking of Children: Participant Guide. Child Welfare Training Academy at the University of South Florida 24 page s . 2010. . http://centerforchildwelfare.fmhi.usf.edu/preservice/stopgap/participantguides/Core%20109_HumanTraffickingofChildren%20_PG_July%202013.pdf

    This Child Welfare Pre-Service Training aims to familiarize participants with Florida's statutory definition of child trafficking, identify the major types of child trafficking, describe potential child traffickers, identify potential child trafficking victims and learn what to do when you suspect child trafficking.

  6. Services Available to Victims of Human Trafficking: A Resource Guide for Social Service Providers. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) 34 page s . 2012. English . http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/services-available-to-victims-of-human-trafficking

    This guide provides information about assistance available to many victims of human trafficking in the United States. It describes various community and State-funded resources, including food, shelter, clothing, medical care, legal assistance, and job training. It also provides information on how a foreign national trafficking victim can obtain a Certification Letter or Eligibility Letter. The booklet outlines the types of Federal benefits and services available to trafficking victims in various immigration categories. Included in the guide is a chart for each Federal program that describes eligibility information for certified adults, children with letters of eligibility, lawful permanent residents, U.S. citizens, and others. (Description from source) 

  7. Trafficking Victims Protection Act Summary Resource Pack. Polaris Project page s . 2008. English . https://na4.salesforce.com/sfc/p/300000006E4S8BPMayCvVPSlRhm2BionQ2HiFHY=

    This resource pack includes a fact sheet focusing on the key provision of the Trafficking Victims' Protection Act (TVPRA) and subsequent Reauthorization Acts from 2000-2008. Also included is a document describing the highlights of TVPRA 2008.

  8. When Federal and State Systems Converge: Foreign National Human Trafficking Victims Within Juvenile and Family Courts. Carr, Bridgette A. 77 page s . Winter 2012. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This article highlights the concerns facing foreign national children who are both victims of human trafficking and under the jurisdiction of juvenile and family courts. It also explains the federal benefits available to these children and identifies the best practice approaches for juvenile and family court systems to increase identification of and support for foreign national child trafficking victims. 

Tools for Minors (Back to Top)

  1. Immigration and You: A Manual for Children. National Immigrant Justice Center , Heartland Alliance for Human Needs & Human Rights 28 page s . 2014. English French Hindi Mandarin Punjabi Somali Spanish . http://www.lawhelpny.org/resource/immigration-and-you-know-your-rights-manual-f?ref=50IMJ

    Provides a basic explanation of the United States' immigration system for unaccompanied children who are being detained by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Easy-to-comprehend answers are offered to the following questions about: (1) why a child is not allowed to enter the U.S. without permission; (2) the role of the immigration judge; (3) the process whereby a child may live with a family member or friend of the family living legally in the U.S.; (4) the importance of keeping court appointments, telling the truth, and reading all documents; (5) what to expect from a lawyer; (6) how to stay legally in the U.S., including the necessity of returning temporarily to one's home country in order to get permission to emigrate to the U.S.; the special status of asylum seekers; and special visas for children who have been harmed, abandoned, or neglected by their parents; (7) what happens when a judge orders a child to be sent back to his or her home country; and (8) a child's rights when detained by the INS, including communication with an attorney and access to health care. Includes simple drawings, a glossary of terms, and a listing of inexpensive, free immigration service providers.

  2. Keeping Safe! A Teen Bilingual Guide. Bridging Refugee Youth and Children's Services (BRYCS) 15 page s . 2013. English Spanish . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/teens-bilingual-safety-guide.pdf

    This guide was created for unaccompanied teens and will assist them in knowing their rights while they are in the United States, keeping them safe so they can thrive in their life journeys.   

  3. Keeping Safe! Children's Bilingual Guide. Bridging Refugee Youth and Children's Services (BRYCS) 15 page s . 2013. English Spanish . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/children-bilingual-safety-guide.pdf

    This guide was created for unaccompanied children and will assist young people in knowing their rights while they are in the United States, keeping them safe so they can thrive in their life journeys.

  4. Story of Me: An Orientation Workbook for Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URMs). Cultural Orientation Resource Center (COR) 36 page s . April 2013. English . http://www.culturalorientation.net/library/all-lesson-plans/youth

    Participants will complete this workbook during and after Cultural Orientation. Based on variations of activities in On Their Way: An Orientation Curriculum for Unaccompanied Refugee Minors, the materials are applicable for URM however there is a workbook for refugee youth in general, Story of Me: An Orientation Workbook for Refugee Youth.   


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