Resources to Enhance Child Welfare Training Curricula

  1. A New World: Immigration and Foster Care. Youth Communication 40 page s . Spring 2010. English . http://www.youthcomm.org/Publications/FCYU.htm#Represent100_immigration

    This volume of Represent was written by and for young people in the foster care system and provides information for youth on Special Immigrant Juvenile Status, the right to education, and more. 

  2. Assessment of Issues Facing Immigrant and Refugee Families. Segal, Uma A. , Mayadas, Nazneen S. 563-583 page s . 2005 September-October. English . http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.467.4575&rep=rep1&type=pdf

    This article identifies the different problems immigrants and refugees face in the United States, especially socioeconomic and psychosocial concerns that often relate to the experience of migration. Traditional familial roles and responsibilities are frequently challenged, exacerbated by sociocultural differences and inadequatem understandings between the new arrivals and the host country. Essential in assessments of immigrant and refugee families is evaluating resources for social, economic, and cultural integration; discriminating between realistic and unrealistic expectations; evaluating families' problem-solving abilities; exploring family functioning within the context of heritage; identifying the transferability of work skills; and gauging families' learning capabilities and motivation for adaptation. -description from source

  3. Brighter Futures for Migrating Children: An Overview of Current Trends and Promising Practices in Child Welfare. Bridging Refugee Youth and Children's Services (BRYCS) 38 page s . 2006. English . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/BrighterFuturesForMigratingChildren_070808.pdf

    Refugee, undocumented, and trafficked children from a broad range of countries represent a growing population in many of our state and county child welfare systems, and many service providers are facing challenges in meeting their unique needs. The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB), which has specialized in serving migrating children for over 25 years, convened Brighter Futures for Migrating Children: An Overview of Current Trends and Promising Practices in Child Welfare to share key "promising practices," or innovative strategies that have resulted in more effective services to these populations. The discussion took place on February 27, 2006 in Washington, D.C., during the Child Welfare League of America National Conference, "Children 2006: Securing Brighter Futures." Speakers from USCCB and Bridging Refugee Youth & Children's Services (BRYCS) provided background information on migrating children and their service eligibility. Dr. Ilze Earner, editor of the recent September/October 2005 special issue of Child Welfare, "Immigrants and Refugees in Child Welfare," presented immigration trends and successful strategies for improving the responsiveness of service systems to the special needs of migrating children. Audience members shared current challenges, as well as opportunities, and contributed methods and resources from their organizations and experiences in serving these children. This session was part of an on-going series of facilitated discussions (including the National Child Welfare Advisory Board in 2004 and "Enhancing State Child Welfare Services to Migrating Children" in 2005) sponsored by USCCB and their partner organization LIRS, with support from the federal Office of Refugee Resettlement. These events have brought together a broad range of experts in the field to discuss challenges and identify strategies for improving child welfare services and outcomes for these especially vulnerable children. This report draws from the presenters' notes together with the major comments made by presenters and audience members during the discussion that followed.

  4. Bulletin: Special Immigrant Juvenile Status. Minnesota Department of Human Services 10 page s . 2010. English . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/State_of_Minnesota.pdf

    This bulletin provides basic information on SIJS including background info, statutory authority, requirements, establishing SIJS, age requirements, best interests, inadmissability grounds, criminal bars, other considerations, adoption, applying for SIJS, caseworker's role, and other issues to be aware of.

  5. Child Abuse and Culture: Working with Diverse Families. Fontes, Lisa Aronson 239 page s . February 2005. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This book provides a framework for culturally competent practice in child maltreatment cases. It offers vital knowledge and tools to help professionals from any background play a more positive, effective role in the lives of diverse children and families.

  6. Cultural and Linguistic Competency in the Child Welfare System: State Strategies. Children's Bureau, Administration for Children and Families (ACF) , U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) page s . October 2009. . http://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=109§ionid=2&articleid=2705

    Because children of color continue to be overrepresented in child welfare systems, this article examines cultural and linguistic competency as an essential guiding principle to support the needs of families involved in child welfare systems.

  7. Culturally Competent Practice with Immigrant and Refugee Children and Families. Fong, Rowena, editor 320 page s . November 2003. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    "This book covers the breadth of issues involved in working with immigrant and refugee children and families. Within an innovative conceptual framework, essential knowledge is presented to guide culturally competent practice with clients from over 14 immigrant groups whose numbers are growing in the United States today. Expert authors review the history of each group's migration to the U.S. and discuss key issues facing families, including cultural conflicts, trauma associated with refugee experiences and/or illegal status, and the effects of poverty and discrimination. Particular attention is given to ways that the practitioner can help families draw on culturally based resources for coping and resilience as they navigate the challenges of their new lives. Recommendations for strengths-based assessment and intervention are brought to life in detailed case examples." - Publisher's description

  8. Culturally Sensitive Risk Assessment: An Ethnographic Approach. Walker, Pamela J. , Tabbert, Wynn 213 page s . 1997. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    "This curriculum combines systematic risk assessment (developed to address inconsistency and randomness in existing assessment tools and used to both identify factors which truly endanger children and illuminate strengths that may be built upon to ameliorate risk and preserve the family) with ethnographic interviewing (developed in response to a growing awareness of the importance of cultural differences in the helping process and the right of clients to receive culturally appropriate services). The combination of the two conceptual frameworks which helps clarify risks and strengths enables case plans and interventions to be more closely matched to what families are able and willing to do." - Publisher's description, reprinted here with permission of the publisher

  9. Immigration and Language Guidelines for Child Welfare Staff, 2nd edition. New York City Administration for Children's Services (ACS) 20 page s . 2004. English . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/langguidelines.pdf

    The New York City Administration for Children's Services wrote this booklet to offer an overview of immigration and language issues to best serve the child welfare issues for the city's immigrant community.

  10. Immigration Issues, Policy 31-8-13. Connecticut Department of Children and Families page s . 2008. . http://www.ct.gov/dcf/cwp/view.asp?a=2639&Q=393682

    It is the Department’s policy to actively serve all persons who come under its purview, regardless of immigration status. The array of services available to other Department clients shall also be available to undocumented persons. This includes, but is not limited to, family preservation efforts to avoid family members being separated through incarceration due to violation of immigration status or deportation procedures.  (Description from source).

  11. Information Packet: Cultural Sensitivity With Immigrant Families and Their Children. Feldman, Inga 18 page s . April 2003. English . http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/socwork/nrcfcpp/downloads/cultual-sensitivity-with-immigrants2.pdf

    Provides basic information on incorporating cultural sensitivity in interventions with immigrant families and children. Social workers, child welfare professionals, and related professionals get: (1) a fact sheet on cultural perspectives on child rearing, which emphasizes the importance of taking into account a family's background and culture in order to avoid misinterpreting behaviors and making inappropriate interventions; (2) best practice tips for promoting a climate of cultural sensitivity, understanding, and mutual respect and also for ensuring the preservation of the child's unique cultural identity; (3) definitions of such terms as culturally competent agencies and systems, ethnocultural diversity, and organizational reflectiveness; (4) a list of model programs and Web-based resources, including the Alliance for Children and Families, the Child Welfare League of America, and the National Resource Center on Child Maltreatment; (5) a summary of policies and procedures regarding cultural sensitivity, including organizational structure and procedures as well as agency training curricula; and (6) a list of suggested reading on topics related to cultural competency and sensitivity. Using these resources, social workers and child welfare professionals can work with immigrant families to understand cultural differences and find ways to bridge them.

  12. Interviewing Immigrant Children and Families About Child Maltreatment. Fontes, Lisa Aronson page s . 2000. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Instructs listeners of the audiotape how to conduct open interviews with immigrant and refugee children (even if they do not speak English) who have suffered experiences of child abuse and neglect. Covers background on why culture and demographic information such as non-nuclear arrangements are important. Advises about the location of the interview, the role of adults who accompany children, and the use of interpreters and bilingual interviewers. Nonverbal cues need special attention: gestures, eye contact, seating arrangements, and physical expressiveness, touch, pace of speech, and silence. The interview consists of three phases: (1) building rapport and establishing trust; (2) conducting the assessment; and (3) reaching closure and preparing for the next steps. Sample questions are included as well as suggestions for using aids such as dolls and drawings during the interview as well as consideration of the crime scene in terms of the culture involved. The techniques described are geared specifically to assist social workers, medical professionals, teachers, attorneys, therapists, and law enforcement personnel in developing rapport with diverse children. (IP)

  13. Migration: A Critical Issue for Child Welfare - 2006 Transnational Research and Policy Forum Report. Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) 43 page s . December 2006. English . http://www.americanhumane.org/assets/pdfs/children/child-welfare-migration/2006report.pdf

    This report, from a roundtable discussion held in July 2006 by the American Humane Association and Loyola University at Chicago, provides an overview of the issues surrounding the topic of migration especially as it pertains to child welfare.

  14. Multicultural Approaches in Caring for Children, Youth, and Their Families. Cohen, Neil A. , Tran, Thanh V. , Rhee, Siyon Y. 400 page s . 2007. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Covers critical issues for those in social services fields who work with multicultural children and families representing varied religious, racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. The initial chapter details the history of child welfare in the U.S. from the colonial period to the laws of the 1990s and provides an overview of child welfare policy and services. Next, readers learn the framework for fairness and justice as well as child welfare system decision points and social work competencies for equal practice. In separate chapters, each containing numerous case studies, the authors profile the strengths and needs of specific client populations. African American children, youth, and families face higher rates of poverty, unemployment, imprisonment, out-of-home placements, substance abuse, and reduced levels of health care and child care. American Indian and Alaska Native communities are committed to traditional cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors that have created a legacy of survival and strength. Asian American culture, with its tradition of mutual support and interdependence, emphasis on parental authority, and rigid gender roles, encounters adjustment difficulties and intergenerational tensions from life in the U.S. Latinos represent a mix of cultures from Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico as well as other Central and South American countries; interventions for these clients should follow a strengths-based generalist approach. White ethnic immigrants encompass Russian Jews, Irish, Italian, and Middle Eastern backgrounds, and experience different problems with poverty, education, employment, and integration into U.S. society depending on their cultural values and traditions. Traumatized refugees and asylum-seekers have confronted violence, torture, sexual abuse, human trafficking, and natural disasters- all of which call for special considerations in assessment and child protective services. (IP)

  15. Multicultural Guidelines for Assessing Family Strengths and Risk Factors in Child Protective Services. Pecora, Peter J. , English, Diana J. 121 page s . February 1993. English . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/mutlicultguidelines.pdf

    Reports on an alternative to risk assessment in child protective services that builds on advances in multicultural practice. Features of this approach include analyzing child, family, and community as well as staff resources, and differentiating between internal and external factors limiting family functioning. Chapter 1 broadly describes the report and modifications to the Washington Risk Matrix. Chapter 2 discusses assessing family strengths and risk factors in child abuse and neglect. Chapter 3 presents a checklist for use in training or in case assessment. Chapter 4 reviews the literature on cultural norms and risk factors in connection with families of color. Chapter 5 offers multicultural practice guidelines referenced to risk area. Chapter 6 contains both the preliminary risk assessment matrix and selected guidelines. Chapter 7 contains summary assessment forms. The risk assessment approach encourages child welfare workers to build upon family strengths - rather than focusing on negatives -to address problems or needs. The risk factors may require modification to address ethnic, geographic, and cultural differences, and the risk-factor rating scales need to be validated.

  16. Perspectives on Cultural Competence: A Special Issue of CWLA's Child Welfare Journal. Velazquez, Jorge Jr. , McPhatter, Anna R. , Yang, KaYing . 2003 March-April. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Contents: Preface; Beyond the Rhetoric: Strategies for Implementing Culturally Effective Practice with Children, Families, and Communities by Anna R. McPhatter and Traci L. Ganaway; Beyond Cultural Competence: What Child Protection Managers Need to Know and Do by Fernando Mederos and Isa Woldeguiorguis; Framework for Culturally Competent Decisionmaking in Child Welfare by Elena P. Cohen; Building Effective Working Relationships Across Culturally and Ethnically Diverse Communities by Cheryl A. Hosley, Linda Gensheimer, and Mai Yang; Culturally and Ethnically Diverse Communities: Building Blocks for Working Relationships by Annette Woodroffe and Mavis Spencer; Beyond Cultural Competence: Language Access and Latino Civil Rights by Layla P. Suleiman; A Culturally Responsive Practice Model for Urban Indian Child Welfare Services by Robert Mindell, Maria Vidal de Haymes, and Dale Francisco; Trauma of Children of the Sudan: A Constructivist Exploration by Patty Stow Bolea, George Grant Jr., Marcy Burgess, and Olja Plasa; A Model of Culture-Centered Child Welfare Practice by Oronde A. Miller and Rebecca Jones Gaston; Transracial Adoption: Families Identify Issues and Needed Support Services by Maria Vidal de Haymes and Shirley Simon; Racism and Sexism in Child Welfare: Effects on Women of Color as Mothers and Practitioners by Isa M. Woldeguiorguis

  17. Protecting Children Special Issue: Migration - A Critical Issue for Child Welfare. American Humane Association 88 page s . 2006. English . http://www.americanhumane.org/assets/pdfs/children/pc-cwam-pc-article-migration.pdf

    The latest issue of Protecting Children, the American Humane Association's professional journal, focuses on the intersection between migration and child welfare in the United States. The American Humane Association collaborated with the Loyola University Chicago Graduate School of Social Work to produce this seminal issue titled Migration: A Critical Issue for Child Welfare.

  18. Protecting Children Special Issue: The Influence of Culture and Cultural Competence on Child and Family Well-being. McPhatter, A. , Woodroffe, A. 56 page s . 2005. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This issue offers a review of the literature on factors contributing to disproportionality, information pertaining to cultural competence and Family and Child Well-being, and also includes an article on interviewing immigrant children and their families about child maltreatment.

  19. Refugee Children: Theory, Research, and Services. Ahearn, Frederick L., Jr. , Athey, Jean L. 248 page s . July 1991. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Explores the unique physical, social, and mental health needs of refugee children, particularly those who escape war or other forms of violence, and proposes effective and timely interventions to assist this vulnerable population. The three objectives of the book are: (1) the presentation of theory, research, and services that define the effects of the migration experience on children; (2) to increase the understanding of child refugees; and, (3) to suggest delivery of services and to describe model strategies for programming. Part I, Theoretical Overviews, discusses common stressors facing refugees, including trauma, loss, and deprivation. Also, the process of "acculturation," or resettlement, is examined with particular emphasis on how specific native cultures buffer, or appear to neglect, children during this transition period. Part II, Research Studies, presents three case studies, two on the Indochinese refugees and one on Central American youth. Each case study discusses the impact of massive trauma and exposure to violence on academic and intellectual achievement, anti-social behavior patterns, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and economic adjustment. Part III, Service and Treatment Issues, outlines common types of psychopathology among refugee children and offers several model treatment programs. Primary prevention programs aimed at refugee children are nearly non-existent. Suggestions are provided to develop these programs in order to identify and address potential behavior problems. (IP-CW)

  20. Safety and Well-Being for Immigrant and Refugee Children and Families. The Workgroup on Safety and Well-Being for Immigrant and Refugee Children and Families 31 page s . December 2010. English . http://dcf.wisconsin.gov/children/immigrant_refugee/pdf/child_welfare_report.pdf

    The Wisconsin Department of Children and Families recently developed a workgroup on the Safety and Well-Being for Immigrant and Refugee Children and Families.  Their first report addresses a number of issues that the child welfare system faces in working with refugee and immigrant families and includes case examples (e.g. Burmese, etc.) that illustrate those challenges.   

  21. Services to Children (Chapter 4, Section 12): Placement of a Refugee Child. Department of Human Services 4 page s . 2007. . http://www.dhs.state.or.us/caf/safety_model/procedure_manual/ch04/ch4-section12.pdf

    The placement of a refugee child is very rare in Oregon. The caseworker follows specific rules when the child is a refugee child or is the child of a refugee parent. This section defines a "refugee child" and  includes information on procedures, the role of the Refugee Child Welfare Advisory Committee, need for case records, supervisor's role, and forms and references

  22. Services to Children and Families Who Are Not U.S. Citizens. Department of Family and Protective Services page s . n.d.. . https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/handbooks/CPS/Files/CPS_pg_6700.asp

    Includes statements on law and management policy surrounding the provision of services to children and families without U.S. Citizenship.

  23. Serving Foreign-Born Foster Children: A Resource for Meeting the Special Needs of Refugee Youth and Children. Bridging Refugee Youth and Children's Services (BRYCS) 59 page s . 2003. English . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/fostercare-2.pdf

    This document addresses the special challenges in serving foreign-born children in U.S foster care systems. It is intended for administrative and casework staff of child welfare agencies and other public and private organizations that work with refugee children and families. The document draws on the experiences of existing foster care programs to suggest practical means of meeting the assessment and placement needs of foreign-born children in foster care. In addition, the paper highlights potential areas for collaboration between public and private entities and identifies the laws, policies and professional standards relevant to serving refugee and immigrant children. The appendix includes resources on topics such as developing refugee foster families, identifying the particular service needs of refugee children in foster care, and assisting trafficked children.

  24. Serving Undocumented Children and Children in Mixed Status Families. Chester, Hilary , Morland, Lyn 21 page s . 2010. English . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/UndocMixedStatusFamilies.pdf

    This presentation is on vulnerable immigrant children and includes information on the following topics: definitions of "undocumented", what being undocumented means, who are considered documented immigrants, knowing a person's immigration status, real or perceived barrier to accessing resources, family dynamics, best practices, and recognizing and using community strengths.

  25. Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention. Fontes, Lisa Aronson (ed.) 328 page s . 1995. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    "A beautiful foreword by Eliana Gil and a very helpful preface and introduction by the editor, Lisa Aronson Fontes, elucidate the many ways in which culture is relevant to sexual abuse. They set the personal tone and the fresh scholarly information that characterizes the chapters. The reader is treated to an impressive, state-of-the-art array of ideas on culture that opens new avenues for inquiry." - Publisher's description

  26. The Challenge of Permanency Planning in a Multicultural Society. Anderson, Gary R. (ed.) , Ryan, Angela Shen (ed.) , Leashore, Bogart R. (ed.) 215 page s . 1997. This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Recognizing the need for child welfare workers to appreciate the role of culture in a family's life, this book emphasizes the importance of the need for cultural knowledge, sensitivity, and skill on the part of caseworkers and policy makers for putting permanency and stability into the lives of at-risk children. The articles in the book are: (1) "Introduction: Achieving Permanency for All Children in the Child Welfare System" (Gary R. Anderson); (2) "Personal Reflections on Permanency Planning and Cultural Competency" (Carol W. Williams); (3) "Developing Diversity Competence in Child Welfare and Permanency Planning" (Elaine Pinderhughes); (4) "African American Men, Child Welfare, and Permanency Planning" (Bogart R. Leashore); (5) "Machismo, Fatherhood and the Latino Family: Understanding the Concept" (Yolanda Mayo); (6) "Cultural Diversity and Help-Seeking Behavior: Sources of Help and Obstacles to Support for Parents" (JoDee Keller and Katherine McDade); (7) "Preventing Substance Abuse from Undermining Permanency Planning: Competencies at the Intersection of Culture, Chemical Dependency, and Child Welfare" (Irene R. Bush and Anthony Sainz); (8) "Broadening Our View: Lessons from Kinship Foster Care" (Faith Johnson Bonecutter and James P. Gleeson); (9) Grandmother Caregivers in Inner-City Latino Families: A Descriptive Profile and Informal Social Supports" (Denise Burnette); (10) "Guide for Effectively Recruiting African American Adoptive Families" (Wilfred Hamm); (11) "Training Child Welfare Workers to Meet the Requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act" (Raymond L. Bending); (12) "Why the Need for the Indian Child Welfare Act?" (Lila J. George); (13) "Toward a Competent Child Welfare Service Delivery System for Gay and Lesbian Adolescents and Their Families" (Gerald P. Mallon); and (14) "Lessons Learned from Programs for Unaccompanied Refugee Minors" (Angela Shen Ryan). Each chapter contains references. (Description from source)

  27. The National Resource Center for Permanency and Family Connections. Hunter College School of Social Work page s . n.d.. . http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/socwork/nrcfcpp/index.html

    The National Resource Center for Permanency and Family Connections at the Hunter College School of Social Work is a training, technical assistance, and information services organization dedicated to help strengthen the capacity of State, local, Tribal and other publicly administered or supported child welfare agencies to: institutionalize a safety-focused, family-centered, and community-based approach to meet the needs of children, youth and families. Professional working with refugee and immigrant population may particularly find the following pages useful:

  28. Undercounted. Underserved. Immigrant and Refugee Families in the Child Welfare System. Lincroft, Yali , Resner, Jena 56 page s . 2006. English . http://www.aecf.org/upload/PublicationFiles/IR3622.pdf

    "This report focuses on the needs of immigrant and refugee children in the child welfare system. It is a result of extensive research, including a literature review; interviews with child welfare workers, immigration attorneys, adoptive parents, foster youth, advocates, staff of community-based agencies, researchers, and policymakers; and the recommendations from a consultative session with national experts and child welfare practitioners." - Publisher's description